Accident Review and Analysis

Automotive crashworthiness and the systems analysis of accidents is what we do best. We look at accidents as a whole, to determine what systems may have failed and why. This approach encompasses all areas of crashworthiness so that there is a clear picture of all the involved elements.


Related Papers and Presentations

RSV Phase II Accident Analysis Techniques, 6th International Experimental Safety Vehicle (ESV) Conference


The Research Safety Vehicle (RSV) Phase I accident analysis was upgraded to more accurately reflect the real-world distribution of injuries and accident modes by velocity. This analysis was accomplished by revising the accident file corrections used in Phase I to be more representative of larger files that, in turn, were corrected to represent the total number of annual real-world US accidents and fatalities. From these files, detailed examination identified the velocities and modes contributing most of the societal costs of accidents. The results of the analysis have more specifically identified the crashworthiness and injury reduction goals of the Minicars RSV program. These goals, in turn, have led to recommended test matrices for the Phase IV efforts.

Evaluating the Crashworthiness of Small Cars Using Accident Data, 8th International Experimental Safety Vehicle (ESV) Conference


The use of accident data to evaluate the crashworthiness of vehicles, and small car in particular, is a subject with many problems. This paper identifies a number of statistical and engineering issues which have been identified in the course of data analysis efforts using current data files. Analysis results are presented comparing large and small car crashworthiness; the statistical models developed relating injury probability to crash conditions show no dependence on vehicle class; the effect of statistical and engineering issues on potential conclusions is discussed. Recommendations are made through which the issues identified may be addressed and resolved.

Roof Crush Versus Occupant Injury from 1988 to 1992 NASS, Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) International Congress


Rollover accidents account for a large number of serious to fatal injuries annually. In the past, these injuries were often the result of unrestrained occupant ejection. Subsequent to mandatory belt use laws, a larger percentage of these injuries occur inside the vehicle, and the head and neck areas sustain a substantial number of these injuries.

An analytical effort to understand rollover injuries, using the field accident data of the NASS file and residual headroom as an indicator, was reported by the authors at the 1996 ESV conference in Melbourne, Australia. This paper describes the relationship between roof crush and restrained occupant injury in rollover accidents as derived from the analysis of 1988-1992 NASS files. It extends the residual headroom parameter to the entire population of head, face and neck occupants injured inside the compartment.

Mathematical Analysis of Accident Data Using Police Coded Injury and Medical Record Based Injury Coding, Mathematical Modeling and Scientific Computing


Various methods of cataloging vehicular accidents have been around for many years. Two of them are examined here, state accident data and the National Automotive Sampling System Crashworthiness Data System, NASS-CDS, with a summary of the historical usage. It is shown that there can be problems with using the state accident data due to misclassifications associated with the underlying data. A specific examination is presented of the AK coded injuries, from the KABCO scale, representing serious and fatal injuries. A comparison with the Abbreviated Injury Scale, AIS, injuries recorded in the NASS-CDS system that are based on medical reports shows that approximately 70% of the time the AK coded injuries do not represent serious injuries or fatalities. Because of this misclassification, analyses based on this data can lead to unreliable results.

Mathematical Analysis and Review of Vehicular Rollovers, Mathematical Modeling and Scientific Computing


The analysis of a series of experimental rollovers of unbelted Hybrid III  dummies and belted dummies at dolly rollover speeds (50 kph) showed that the roof of production vehicles travel substantially faster towards the dummies than the dummies move towards the roof. An electronic and photographic analysis of an 80 kph rollover shows potential contact speeds up to 32 kph in the region of the pillars. An Articulated Total Body analysis demonstrates that a stronger m f decreases the contact speeds with a resulting decrease in potential neck injury.

Impact Induced Fires: Statistical Analysis of FARS and State Data Files 1978-2001, Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) World Congress


This paper is a part of a larger report (Friedman, Kenney, & Holloway, 2003), Impact Induced Fires & Fuel Leakage: Statistical Analysis of FARS and State Data Files (1978-2001).  This larger report included a review of the literature of fire and fuel leaks in post-collision passenger vehicles from 1957 to 2003, replicated Malliaris' (1991) methodology in his landmark study of post-collision fires in’ the State of Michigan and FARS data, and furthered the analysis by examining post­ collision fires and fuel leaks with three state accident databases-Maryland, Illinois and Pennsylvania. The current paper is focused on the conclusions and overall recommendations for data collection and analysis based on the findings from the state accident databases and FARS analyses.

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